Will a smart grid make the electrical grid and building control systems more vulnerable?

It's natural to consider the potential for additional security risks as a result of smart buildings' increasing connectedness to a smart grid.

Monitoring of the smart grid is strongly dependent on exploiting smart sensors implemented throughout the grid and large communication networks to transfer data between different components. As a result, adversaries could leverage such heterogeneous communication networks to execute a variety of malicious cyber assaults against data integrity.

A recent study has revealed that modern smart grids can be vulnerable to cyber-attacks even when using established countermeasure strategies. Because of the number of users, the processing power of smart building control systems, and their data access limitations, the integration of smart buildings can raise the potential for cyber assaults at the distribution level, where current security methods are no longer helpful.

As a result, attackers may find smart building control units to be easy targets for malicious assaults aimed at reducing smart building control system functionality.

Traditional centralised grid control is no longer beneficial considering the amount of necessary data processing, communication bottlenecks, and exponential rise in computational burdens of optimization due to the growing control problem aspect, given the relentless increase in the size of smart grids with high penetration of distributed generation and the dominant tendency toward making building energy usage smart.

As a result, there is a shift away from hierarchical control and toward distributed, multi-agent control. However, because of the increased points of entry, the implementation of this distributed control may enhance grid vulnerability.

New secure communication technology and topologies should be investigated as a solution. To avoid any threats to smart grid integrity, more effective cyber-attack detection and response systems are also required.

Because the connection between buildings and grids increases the vulnerability of smart buildings to data integrity assaults, it is critical to develop reliable and fast cyber-attack detection techniques to avert potential cyber-attacks on building control systems. It's critical to remember, however, that buildings and the grid were already connected to the internet before the advent of the smart grid and smart building technology.

Although connecting buildings and their systems to the smart grid increase the number of potential infiltration sites, risk management is similar to risk management for other Internet connection points.