The traditional wide area network's static and inflexible architecture is unsuitable for dealing with today's increasingly dynamic networking trends and meeting the QoE requirements of modern users. The use of a software-defined wide area network (SD-WAN) to replace a legacy network has been widely considered. In comparison to traditional wide area network architectures, the major vision of software-defined wide-area networks is to ease networking operations in wide area networks, optimise wide area network management, and offer agility and innovation.
The logical and physical architectures of software-defined wide area networks are described.
In a software-defined wide area network, there are three layers from bottom to top, data layer, control layer, and application layer. The data layer's operations can be divided into two categories: bandwidth virtualization and data forwarding. In a wide area network, there are numerous types of networks, such as multiple protocol label switching fabric, Internet, 4G, and so on. Bandwidth virtualization integrates several network links serving one location into a resource pool accessible to all applications and services in order to leverage bandwidth resources. Data forwarding is made up of a dispersed group of forwarding network units (mostly switches) that are responsible for forwarding packets utilizing bandwidth catered by bandwidth virtualization.
Through interface protocols like OpenFlow, they both receive instructions from the upper-layer network controller. The control layer contains a large number of network functions. The implementation and management of such network functions are done independently. Because these operations are decoupled, network operators can design, alter, debug, and remove any one of them at a reasonable cost without affecting the others. Network functions can be coupled or chained together, in addition to working independently, to generate a variety of services and expand the flexibility of a software-defined wide area network.
For instance, network monitoring gives traffic engineering: a global network view, which is what it uses to build an ideal scheduling solution to run in the network
While data transmission, QoS guaranteeing is responsible for meeting application requirements.
Network providers and application developers can specify their specific network requirements using network expression and application expression, both of which can translate stringent expectations articulated almost in normal language into compliant network configurations. As more applications have multi-dimensional requirements, some of which are conflicting, it is vital to modify network regulations while taking application features into account. Consumers expect a high bitrate and low latency from a live video streaming service, for example, even though these goals are incompatible. Application developers can specify and carry out their techniques for dealing with difficult needs in the underlying wide area network using application expression.
Network expression, like application expression, is used to report networking requirements including cost-effective networking and multiobjective networking. Network providers and application developers can be more involved in network control thanks to the application layer.
There are a number of SDN switches in the data layer that are connected by physical lines. These devices are managed by a network controller. Depending on the size and complexity of the network, the network controller is usually a server or a cluster. The network controller is in charge of a variety of network functions. The individual apps appear at the top of the network controller. Application developers and network providers can communicate their needs to the network controller, which will convert them into compliant policies and configurations. In most cases, multiple network controllers are dispersed over multiple sites, with one serving as the master controller and the others as backup controllers. One of the backup controllers will take over immediately if the master controller fails.
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